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Old September 26th, 2021, 11:24 AM
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blazejos blazejos is offline
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Disk Polish Airforce in England PSP

Just d'like to add some research OOB which covers aircraft used by Polish PAF on the west particularly in England but also PSP in France.

So I should start from France in November 1939

In fact they were no aircrafts in PSP (PAF) in time of October 1939 until March 1940

First Polish fighter squadron Groupe de Chasse Polonaise de Varsovie, GC 1/145 unit was created in March 1940 and has as their equipment Morane MS 406 then in may 1940 Caudron CR.714 which were before fall of France withdraw because poor performance and replaced by Bloch MB 152/152

to fill a gap in aircraft's in OOB I used machines which were for training of polish pilots Loire 46 & Dewoitine D.510 between 11.1939-03.1940 even is that is not exactly correct. BTW that was time when was silence on western front Sitzkrieg

In OOB they are also aircraft used by smaller units Polish Flights scattered along front-line in May/June 1940 which also used Dewoitine D 520 & Bloch MB 151/2 & Hawk 75A1/A2 & Koolhoven FK-58 and even newest aircraft's which only 12 were finished before fall of France Arsenal VG-33 of which 6 were used in combat by polish pilots in June 1940

Polish fighter squadrons were:
  • Dywizjon I/145 „Warszawski" (GC 1/145)
  • Dywizjon II/145 „Krakowsko-poznański" (GC 2/145)
  • Dywizjon III/145 „Dębliński" (Fiński) (GC 3/145 Finnish created to help Finland against USSR in winter war what not happens in late 1939)
  • Dywizjon IV GC (4/145)
  • Polski Myśliwski Dywizjon Ruchomy (PMDR)

Polish Flights 4-5 fighters scattered on front in May/July 1940
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 1 (Ła) attached to GC III/2
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 2 (Pe) attached to GC II/6
  • Klucz Frontowy (Ce) attached to GC II/6
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 3 (Su) attached to GC III/6
  • Klucz Frontowy (Ba) attached to GC III/6
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 4 (Bu) attached to GC III/1
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 5 (Br) attached to GC I/2
  • Klucz Frontowy Nr 6 (Go) attached to GC II/7
  • Klucz Frontowy (Jan) attached to GC II/7
  • Podwójny Klucz Frontowy Nr 7 "Wy" attached to GC II/10
  • Podwójny Klucz Frontowy Nr 8 "Ja" attached to GC II/1
  • Podwójny Klucz Frontowy Nr 10 (Ga) attached to GC III/10
  • Klucz Frontowy (Pa) attached to GC II/8
  • Podwójny Klucz Frontowy "Wi" attached to GC II/9

Polish Flights 4-5 fighters scattered inside France for factory's/city's defence May/July 1940
  • Klucz Obrony Lokalnej Nr 9 "Ko" (ELD/Chateaudun)
  • I Klucz Kominowy (Kr) w Etampes (ECD I/55)
  • II Klucz Kominowy (Op) (ELD/Romorantin-Lanthenay)
  • III Klucz Kominowy (Ku) (ECD/Nantes)
  • IV Klucz Kominowy (He) (ELD/Chateauroux)
  • V Klucz Kominowy (Kos) (ELD/Bourges)
  • VI Klucz Kominowy (Sa) (ELD/Toulouse)
  • VII Klucz Kominowy - 1 Eskadra (Koolhoven/Clermont)
  • VIII Klucz Kominowy - 2 Eskadra (Koolhoven/Salon)
  • IX Klucz Kominowy (Jan) (ELD/Angers)
  • X Klucz Kominowy (Fa) (ELD/Cognac)
  • XI Klucz Kominowy (Kow) (ELD/La Rochelle)
  • Klucz Kominowy "Kol" w Rennes

Polish prepared also a bomber squadron in May/June 1940 they were trained on Amiot 143M & Bloch MB.200 & Bloch MB.210 and their indented equipment was Bloch MB.131 but they not finish training before fall of France so this unit wasn't used and evacuated to England without aircraft's left on French soil.

Polish bomber units were:
  • I Dywizjon Bombowy (1 Bomber squadron)

Polish observation units were also just trained and ready to be used but France fall and was too late to take parts in fights the were trained on Potez.63.11

Polish AOP units were:
  • I Dywizjon Współpracy (1 squadron of army Cooperation)
  • II Dywizjon Współpracy (2 squadron of army Cooperation)

Also to polish squadron were added transport aircraft's taken from Air France they were Bloch MB.220 also mentioned in OOB passenger airlines which Poles plan to use for flights into occupied Poland and use to delivery supplies and parachute agents for ZWZ (Związek Walki Zbrojnej) predecessor of AK (Armia Krajowa) but before this were organised France fall so this flights were first time organised from England.

Now time for PSP (PAF) forces in England

Mostly polish pilots come to England without aircraft's which French insist to leave on their airfields. Pilots, crews and mechanics come to England on boards of evacuation ships but some of the pilots escapes to England on their machines. That is why I represent this by Bloch MB.152 in RAF colours briefly used by one of polish pilots in summer 1940 before RAF replaced all aircraft's with Hurricane MK.IA which was main aircraft of PSP during Battle of Britain. Is possible that in July-August before was enough Huricanes & Spitfires and rather lack of pilots became problem leter all captured or interned by England French aircraft's were given to Poles who were familiar with this models and used by them until end of August when Huricanne Mk.IA became main fighter of PSP.

Here Bloch MB.152 in RAF colours

Polish squadrons in Britain were:
  • 300 Dywizjon Bombowy „Ziemi Mazowieckiej" (Bomber)
  • 301 Dywizjon Bombowy „Ziemi Pomorskiej" (Bomber)
  • 302 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Poznański" (Fighter)
  • 303 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Warszawski im. Tadeusza Kościuszki" (Fighter)
  • 304 Dywizjon Bombowy „Ziemi Śląskiej im. Ks. Józefa Poniatowskiego" (Bomber)
  • 305 Dywizjon Bombowy „Ziemi Wielkopolskiej im. Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego" (Bomber)
  • 306 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Toruński" (Fighter)
  • 307 Dywizjon Myśliwski Nocny „Lwowskich Puchaczy" (Night-Fighter)
  • 308 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Krakowski" (Fighter)
  • 309 Dywizjon Współpracy „Ziemi Czerwieńskiej" (AOP for Polish 1 Corps in Scotland then NW Europe after D-day )
  • 315 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Dębliński" (Fighter)
  • 316 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Warszawski"(Fighter)
  • 317 Dywizjon Myśliwski „Wileński" (Fighter)
  • 318 Dywizjon Myśliwsko-Rozpoznawczy „Gdański" (Fighter-bomber & AOP used for ground support for Polish 1 Corps in Scotland used NW Europe in 1944 moved to Italy used for support of 2 Corps)
  • 663 Dywizjon Samolotów Artylerii (AOP in Italy for 2 Corps)
  • Polski Zespół Myśliwski (Polish Fighting Team)(During fights in Tunesia 1943 then incorporated into 318 squadron on Italian front for 2Corps )

Polish also used MK.IIB in 1941 and MK.IIC Hurribomber as long as until 1944. They also used briefly Hurricane Mk.IV with 40mm gun and rockets in 1944 before D-day from bases in England. Main aircraft after 1942 in Polish divisions was Spitfire. Shortly used Spitfire Mk.IA after Battle of Britain until version Spitfire Mk.XVI in 1945 in meantime Mk.IX and Mk.V were moust popular. Mustangs were also used by polish 318 division for ground support Mustang Mk.I & Mustang Mk.IA then during D-day Mk.III were also used by some fighter divisions and finally Mk.IV by famous division 303 in 1945.
Bomber forces in 1940 were used to bombardment of German invasion fleet in French ports that were Fairey Battle then Wellington comes in October 1940 and until end of 1943 became main polish bomber also used by one of Polish Coastal Command division. Lancasters comes in March 1944 and was used until end of war. Polish divisions also used Mosquito as fighter-bomber and bomber.
Only short time between 1943-1944 American Mitchell Mk.II were used.
Is necessary also mention about Baufighter in PSP which was used only by polish night division in defence of Cornwall Beaufighter Mk.IIF and Beaufighter MK.VIF were used in night fighter only versions.
In army cooperation AOP role was one division in Scotland which used Lysander Mk.I and then in Italy attached to 2nd Corps was created other unit which used Austers to help Artillery targeting. DH-82 Tiger Moth was added to fill gap in 1940 Poland has no AOP division in summer and fall 1940 and was used originally by polish pilots for training in summer 1940 so probably is suitable as AOP. If we talked about para units Poland has one 1 Samodzielna Brygada Spadochronowa[1st (Polish) Independent Parachute Brigade] used during Arnhem operation. They never has their own separate Polish transport unit but based on aircraft's and crews from English divisions. So they used in early years 1942-1943 Whitley for training and then after 1943 Dakotas. Polish transport pilots and aircraft's were employed to supply polish underground partisans in Poland with arms, supply, under covered agents (Cichociemni) and sometimes even bombardment of targets inside Poland mentioned by partisans.
For this duties conducted by Polish part of SOE were employed polish division 301 which were in March 1943 from Bomber reformed to 1586 Flight RAF C division Polish Special Duty which was tasked with flights into occupied Motherland. Before first Whitley were used in 1941 then Halifax was found most suitable for this long flights to occupied Poland. In 1944 Halifax were supplemented by B-24 and both types were used to supply Warsaw during missions from Italian Brindisi. Also polish have Dakotas which were used in operations Most(Wildhorn) to land in occupied Poland in 1944 on makeshift airstrips prepared by partisans in forests and take especial valuable equipment like V2 rocket in parts which was stolen from German test site in Blizna near Przemyśl. So for that I will propose separate Air Supply like in soviet OOB which will represent this aircraft which supply underground in Poland.

There in OOB which represents aircraft's used by PSP [PAF] formation in England and France there are also pictures of this aircraft's in Polish service. I also add some icons which were missed like B-24 in RAF service. Date were also corrected to times were particular type were used by Polish divisions which is different than use of this type in British service.

And here link to webpage with detailed history photos&movies about each of Polish Squadrons http://www.polishsquadronsremembered.com/

Polish Spitfire Mk.V with Jan Zumbach in cabin [orginal wartime color photo]

Last edited by blazejos; October 7th, 2021 at 07:20 AM..
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Old October 3rd, 2021, 06:46 AM
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Default Re: Polish Airforce in England PSP

Just d'like to add info about Polish heritage flight in England part of Battle of Britain Flight they have two historical aircraft's original Spitfire who served during WWII in 315 & 317 Polish Squadrons and Huricane Mk.I in paint of Sgt Josef Frantisek who was Czechoslovak but fights together with Polish in 303 division probably because he flown before with them on Polish and French sky in two campaigns so he stayed with them even when 312 Czechoslovak RAF division were formed.

And movie about polish pilots in England during Battle of Britain. - An 80th Anniversary Tribute part movie/part documentary 32:58 minutes
Second movie Polish Flying Legends 6:55 for 75 years anniversary of BofB

Also movie about 31 Division of SAAF "The Men who went to Warsaw" documentary interview with South African's aviators who take part in Warsaw Airlift in 1944 on boards of Liberators https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHWg5LQkOjA

Short movie 6:48 CGI based on historical data how flight over ruined Warszawa looks like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_svAHZHE1uA

Here their website https://polishheritageflight.com/

Last edited by blazejos; October 4th, 2021 at 06:14 AM..
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Old October 6th, 2021, 02:36 PM

Pibwl Pibwl is offline
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Default Re: Polish Airforce in England PSP

Just a 3 cents, to make things clear: Polish "dywizjon" unit is not a Division (big land army unit, which is "dywizja" in Polish - there were air divisions in USSR only), but a name used in air force or cavalry for a battalion-size unit. In the air force it is traditionally translated as Squadron - and such names were adopted in Polish Air Force in Great Britain for squadrons (although some say, that Squadron should be in fact "eskadra" in Polish, and they are right - these words have the same origin and are both equivalent of French Escadrille and Italian Squadriglia).

In Polish pre-war aviation, eskadra had 10 fighters, and two eskadras formed dywizjon.

"Klucz" is the smallest section, an equivalent of Flight, usually with 3 aircraft.
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